Postmenopausal bone loss, related to estrogen deficiency, is the primary contributor to osteoporosis.

Risk factors used in FRAX (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool)


Bone mineral density testing is indicated for all postmenopausal women with risk factors for low BMD or fracture. – DXA is the preferred technique for BMD testing.

For untreated postmenopausal women at low fracture risk, repeat DXA testing is not useful until at least 5 years have passed, unless rapid bone loss is anticipated. 

Nonpharmacologic measures such as good nutrition (especially adequate intake of protein, calcium, and vitamin D), regular physical activity, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are appropriate for all postmenopausal women.

Supplemental Research

Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: the 2021 position statement of The North American Menopause Society